I want to talk more about one very powerful technique that you can have your tutor use when reading these stories or talking about other things in Khmer to help you understand, acquire, and remember Khmer words and Khmer grammatical structures.
Known as circling, this technique was popularized and developed in TPRS (Teaching Proficiency Through Reading and Storytelling), a method of teaching languages through comprehensible input by telling stories.
Circling basically means the teacher or tutor asks various questions about a statement that they’ve just made.
The statements and the questions that they ask about them are all in the language they’re teaching—in our case, Khmer.
Some examples of circling questions
The story starts with the picture to the right and this sentence:
ដំដំមាននំធំ១ ។ (Domdom has one big cake.)
With circling, your tutor would say this sentence and then ask you questions about it.
The simplest questions are yes/no questions, for example:
តើដំដំមាននំធំមួយទេ? (Does Domdom have one big cake?)
To this you can answer “បាទ/ចាស” (male/female “yes” in Khmer), say “yes” in English, or just nod, and the tutor can confirm, saying “បាទ/ចាស ដំដំមាននំធំ១ ។ “(Yes, Domdom has one big cake.)
They could also ask many questions for which the answer is no, for example:
តើដំដំមាននំតូចមួយទេ? (Does Domdom have one small cake?)
តើដំដំមាននំធំពីរទេ? (Does Domdom have two big cakes?)
តើ ដូណាល់ ត្រាំ មាននំធំមួយទេ? (Does Donald Trump have one big cake?)
To all of these you could answer “ទេ” (no in Khmer), say no in English, or just shake your head.
Then the tutor can confirm, saying, for example, “ទេ ដំដំមិនមែនមាននំតូចមួយ” (No, Domdom does not have one small cake), and ask another question or restate the correct sentence.
They can also ask either/or questions, for example:
តើដំដំមាននំធំមួយឬនំធំពីរ? (Does Domdom have one big cake or two big cakes?)
They can turn the sentence into “wh” questions that it has the answers to:
តើនរណាមាននំធំមួយ? (Who has one big cake?) Answer: ដំដំ (Domdom)
តើដំដំមានអ្វី? (What does Domdom have?) Answer: នំធំមួយ (One big cake)
តើដំដំមាននំប៉ុន្មាន? (How many cakes does Domdom have?) Answer: មួយ (One)
If you don’t know the answer, they can just give the correct answer.
The questions also help the tutor know how well you understand what they are saying in Khmer, so they can adjust and make sure that you can understand better.
Have fun communicating
As you can see a lot of questions can be generated even from one very simple statement.
This doesn’t mean that your tutor needs to every conceivable question.
Circling questions can become boring if they’re overdone and it becomes like a drill.
It should be fun and interesting and the focus should be on communication—the tutor is telling the story and helping you understand it, and checking that you do understand it.
As your tutor asks these questions, they should be using other tools to help communicate what they are saying, since they will both be making the statements and asking the questions about them all in Khmer.
They can use intonation to emphasize parts of the sentences they are asking the questions about, and even telegraph through this what answer they expect.
They should also use pointing and gestures to show what they’re talking and asking about.
For example, with a question like “តើដំដំមាននំធំមួយឬនំធំពីរ?” (Does Domdom have one big cake or two big cakes?), they can point to Domdom the elephant when they say ដំដំ (Domdom), show one and two with their fingers when saying the numbers, and point to the cake when they say (នំធំ) “big cake”.
Use the pictures
If you are a beginner especially, your tutor should be talking a lot about the pictures, pointing to and describing them in detail so that you can pick up words.
The tutor can also use circling to ask questions about the things they say about the picture.
For example, with the picture above they can point and say “ដំដំជាដំរី” (Domdom is an elephant) and then ask “តើដំដំជាដំរីឬសត្វកវែង?” “Is Domdom an elephant or a giraffe?”
Another way the tutor can use questions with the pictures is to do things like asking where something is, for example, “Where is the red hat?”
A more advanced learner could say where it is, but a beginning learner could just point to it.
The tutor can confirm, saying something like “Yes, the hat is on Domdom’s head.” or “Yes, Domdom is wearing the hat”, providing even more language.
It’s clear even with this simple picture and one sentence an enormous number of questions can be generated that use many common Khmer words and Khmer grammar.
Advantages of circling
Circling has a lot of advantages:
- It provides massive meaningful repetition of language
- This repetition helps you better understand what is being said
- By understanding better and getting a lot of repetition you can pick up words and structures more easily
- By answering the questions you are focused on meaning, which helps you learn to think in the language
- You hear many grammatical structures again and again
- By hearing a lot of questions you pick up how different questions are formed in the language
Focus on listening and understanding first, not speaking
As a student, I would recommend you focus on listening and understanding Khmer at the beginning and not trying to speak much.
We become fluent not through speaking, but hearing and understanding a lot of messages in a language—what is known as comprehensible input.
Listening a lot first allows you to internalize how Khmer is pronounced and used, giving you a foundation so that as you speak more and more you will automatically begin to speak Khmer clearly and accurately.
With the circling questions, you can respond to them in whatever way works at your level.
You can use your first language, you can use gestures or pointing, and you can use the Khmer that comes to mind for you without effort.
At first this Khmer speaking will be simple things like yes/no answers.
Eventually you will start to be able to give one- or two-word answers, and then with much listening you will start to speak in partial and complete sentences.
Hearing and answering a lot of circling questions with things that you can understand like interesting stories and pictures can help you get to this level more efficiently.
Khmer audio recordings with circling questions
The Khmer mini-stories and other stories I have shared on this site all have a lot of circling questions that follow the stories:
If you already have some understanding of Khmer can use these on your own to practice listening.